Bibliography of Antimicrobial Activity of Honey – from Prof. Peter Molan (New Zealand)





  • *** Center for Disease Control (1978) (USA) –  Follow-up on infant botulism -United States, California,
    in Morbid Mortal Weekly Report 27,  17-18, 23. [i]



  • *** Center for Disease Control (1978) (USA) –  Honey exposure and infant botulism,
    in Morbid Mortal Weekly Report 27,  249-250, 255.[ii]



  • *** (1983) –  Honey and infant botulism: second report,
    in Bee World 64(4),  148-149.[iii]



  • *** (1995) (Canada) –  Infant Botulism and Honey,
    in Bee sCene, vol. 11, # 1, January,  4 (***).



  • Al Somai,N., Coley,K.E.,  Molan,C.Peter,  Hancock,B.M. (1994) Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to the Antibacterial Activity of Manuka Honey,
    in Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 87,  9-12.



  • Alcala,A.M. (1977) –  Water activity of honey and growth of osmotolerant microorganisms,
    in Trabajos Cientificos de la Universidad de Cordoba, Nr. 20,  1-20.



  • Allen, K. L.; Molan, C. Peter (1997)  –  The sensitivity of mastitis-causing bacteria to the antibacterial activity of honey,
    in New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research  40,  537-540.



  • Anon (1970) –  Yeast in honey,
    in Revue Française d’Apiculture, 282,  453-54.



  • Aoyagi, S.; Oryu, C. (1968) (Japan)  –  Honeybees and honey. III. Yeasts in honey,
    in Tamagawa Daigaku Nogakubu Kenkyu Hokoku ( Fac. Agri. Tamagawa Univ), 7/8,  pp.203-13.



  • Aranda, E.; Rodriguez, M. M.;  Asensio, M. A.;  Cordoba, J. J.[iv] (1997) (Spain)  –   Detection of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F in foods by PCR and DNA Probe,
    in Lett Appl Microbiol Sep;25(3),  186-190. [v]



  • Arnon, S. Stephen; Midura, F. Thaddeus;  Damus, Karla, Thompson, Barbara, Wood, Ronald M. and Chin, James (1979)  –  Honey and other environmental risk factors for infant botulism,
    in The Journal of Pediatrics 94(2),  331-336 (***-abstract). [vi]



  • Arnon, S. Stephen (1980) (USA) –  Infant botulism,
    in Annual Review of Medicine 31,  541-560. [vii]



  • Aureli,P., Ferrini,A.M.,  Negri,S. (1983) (Italy)  –  Clostridium botulinum spores in honey,
    in Rivista della Soc. Ital. Sci. dell’aliment. 12,  457-460.



  • Balslev, T.; Ostergaard, E.;  Madsen, I. K.;  Wandall, D. A.[viii] (1997) (Denmark)  – Infant botulism. The first culture-confirmed Danish case,
    in Neuropediatrics, Oct; 28 (5),  287-288. [ix]



  • Bentler, W.; Frese, E. (1981)  –  Mikrobielle Beschaffenheit und Ruckstandsuntersuchungen von Bienenhonig,
    in Lebensmittelhygiene 32(4),  pp.130-135. [x]



  • Bogdanov, S. (1996) (Switzerland) –  The non-peroxidic antibacterial activity of honey (Antimicrobial properties of honey),
    in the International Conference on Bee Products: Properties, Applications and  Apitherapy, Tel – Aviv, Israel, May 26-30, 1996;                in Romania apicolã, August,  31-32 (***).



  • Bogdanov, S. (1996) (Switzerland) –  Nature and origin of the antibacterial activity of honey,
    in the XXXV-Th. Apimondia Congress, Antwerp, Belgium.



  • Brady, N. F.; Molan, C. Peter;  Harfoot, C. G. (1997)  –  The sensitivity of dermatophytes to the antimicrobial activity of manuka honey and other honey,
    in Pharmaceutical Sciences 2,  1-3.



  • Brown, L. A. (1979) (USA) –  Infant botulism and the honey connection. Commentary on article by Arnon,
    in The Journal of Pediatrics (2),  337-338.



  • Burgett, D. M. (1978)   Antibiotic systems in Honey, Nectar and Pollen.
    A. Morse (ed). Honey bee pests, predators and diseases. Comstock; Ithaca, N.Y.;  pp.297-308.



  • Capolongo Francesca, Baggio Alessandra, Zoletto Barbara,  Mutinelli,Franco (1997) (Italy)  –  Antimicrobial activity of honey,
    in the XXXV-Th. Apimondia Congress, Antwerp, Belgium.



  • Carr, C. (1981) –  Infant botulism,
    in Gleanings in Bee Culture May,  254, 267. [xi]



  • Chambonnaud, J.-P. (1968)   Contribution a la recherche des antibiotiques dans le miel.
    in Bulletin Apicole 11,  133-200.



  • Ciucu Natalia, Constantinescu Ecaterina (1981) (Romania) –  Les principes antibiotiques du miel,
    in the XXVIII-Th. Apimondia Congress, Acapulco, Mexico,  446.



  • Cohn, V. (1978) (USA) –  Risk of botulism seen in feeding honey to infants under one year,
    in Washington Post pp 1 and 7, 6 July. [xii]



  • Cooper, R. A. and Molan C. Peter (1999)  –  The use of honey as an antiseptic in managing Pseudomonas infection,
    in Journal of Wound Care 8 (4),  161-164.



  • Croft Laurie (1987) –  Honey and Health (Chapter 11, “Antibiotic Nature of Honey”),
    Thorsons Publishing Group. ISBN 0-7225-1389-5. 112 pages (***).



  • de Centorbi, O. Puig; Satorres, S. E.;  Alcaraz, L. E.; Centorbi, H. J.;  Fernandez, R.[xiii] (1997) (Argentina)  –  Detection of Clostridium botulinum spores in honey,
    in Argent. Microbiol., Jul-Sep;29(3),  pp.147-51. [xiv]



  • de Centorbi, O. Puig; Centorbi, H. J.;  Demo, N.;  Pujales, G.; Fernandez, R.[xv] (1998) (Argentina)  –  Infant botulism during a one year period in San Luis, Argentina,
    in Zentralbl Bakteriol., Jan; 287(1-2),  61-66. [xvi]



  • Demianovicz Zofia (1971) (Poland) –  Characteristics of fir tree honey on the basis of its microscopic spectrum and some physico-chemical properties,
    in the XXIII-Rd. Apimondia Congress, Moscow, USSR (***).



  • Dreher, K. (1971) (Germany) –  Rhodotorula, the reason of a red shade of honey,
    in the XXIII-Rd. Apimondia Congress, Moscow, USSR,  594 (***).



  • Drouet, N. (1983) –  L’utilisation du sucre et du miel dans le traitement des plaies infectées,
    in Presse Méd; 12(38),  2355-56.



  • Efem, S. E. E.; Udoh, K. T.;  Iwara, C. I. (1992)  –  The antimicrobial spectrum of honey and its clinical significance,
    in Infection 20 (4),  227-229.



  • El-Leithy, M.A.; El-Sibaei,K.B. (1972) (Egypt)  –  Role of microorganisms isolated from the honeybee (Apis mellifera) in ripening and fermentation of honey,
    in Microbiol. 7,  pp.89-95.



  • Fabian,F.W., Quinet,R.I. (1928)  –  A study of the cause of honey fermentation,
    in Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull., 62,  pp.1-41.



  • Fenicia, L.; Ferrini, A. M.;  Aureli, P.;  Pocecco, M. [xvii](1993) (Italy)  –  A case of infant botulism associated with honey feeding in Italy,
    in Eur J Epidemiol, Nov;9(6),  671-3. [xviii]



  • Flemig, R.; Stojanowic, V. (1980) (Germany)  –  Untersuchungen von Bienenhonig auf Clostridium botulinum Sporen,
    in Lebensmittelhygiene 31(5),  pp.179-180. [xix]



  • Furuta, T.; Okimoto, Y. (1975) (Japan)  –  Study on yeasts in honey,
    in Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture, Tamagawa University, Japan, # 15,  37-43.



  • Galuszka, H.; Niemczuk, R.;  Wardzala, B. (1971) (Poland)  Antibiotic activity in honey bee,
    in the XXXIII-Rd. Apimondia Congress, Moscow, USSR.



  • Gonnet, M.; Lavie, P. (1960)  –  Influence du chauffage sur le facteur antibiotique present dans les miels,
    in Annales de l’Abeille 3 (Paris),  349-363.



  • Grecianu, A.; Enciu, V. (1976)  –  Observations on the antibiotic effects of propolis, pollen and honey,
    in the Second International Symposium on Apitherapy, Bucharest. Apimondia Publishing House, pp.177-179.



  • Grecianu, Al.; Luca, Al.;  Carp, M.;  Bunduc Elena (1979) (Romania)  –  Observations on the antimicrobial effect of honey,
    in the XXVII-Th. Apimondia Congress, Athens, Greece,  486 (***-abstract).



  • Hamdy,M.H., El-Banby,M.A.,  Khakifa,K.I.,  Gad,E.M.,  Hassanein,E.M.(1989)  –  The antimicrobial effect of honey in the management of septic wounds.
    in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Apiculture in Tropical Climates, Cairo;
    in International Bee Research Association; London;  61-67.



  • Hartgen, H. (1980) (Germany) –  Untersuchungen von Honigproben auf Botulinus-toxin,
    in Lebensmittelhygiene 31(5),  pp.177-178. [xx]



  • Huhtanen, C. N.; Knox, D. and Shimanuki, H. (1981)  –  Incidence and origin of Clostridium botulinum spores in honey,
    in Journal of Food Protection 44(11),  812-814, 820 (***-abstract). [xxi]



  • Ialomiteanu, M.; Daghie, V. (1973) (Romania)  –  Investigations of the antibiotic qualities of honey,
    in the XXIV-Th.  Apimondia Congress, Buenos Aires, Argentina.



  • Jeddar,A., Kharsany,A.,  Ramsaroop,U.G.,  Bhamjee,A.,  Haffejee,I.E.,  Moosa,A. (1985)  –  The antibacterial action of honey – An in vitro study,
    in South African Medical Journal 67,  257-258.



  • Kautter, D. A.; Lilly, T.;  Solomon, H. M.;  Lynt, R. K. (1982)  –  Clostridium botulinum spores in infant foods: a survey,
    in Journal of Food Protection 45(11),  1028-1029.[xxii]



  • Khristov, G. and Mladenov, Stoianov (1961) (Bulgaria) –   Propriétés antimicrobiennes du miel,
    in Akad>Nauk>bulgar, 14(3),  pp.303-306.



  • Kumbhojkar, M.S. (1978) (India) –  Saccharomyces lochheadii Kumbhojkar : a new species of osmophilic yeast from Indian honey sample,
    in Biovigyanam, 4 (2),  169-71.



  • Lindner, K. E. (1962) (Germany) –  L’activité antimicrobienne du miel naturel,
    in Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie 115(7);  Seiten 720-736.



  • Lochhead, A. G.; Heron, D. A. (1929)  –  Microbiological studies of honey. I. Honey fermentation and its causes. II. Infection of honey by sugar-tolerant yeasts,
    in Dept. Agric. Bull., 116,  pp.1-47.



  • Lochhead, A. G.; Farrel (1930)  –  Soil as a source of infection of honey by sugar-tolerant yeast,
    in J. Res. 3(1),  pp.51-64.



  • Makashvilli, Z. A.; Kathzazde, G. K. and  Sakvarelidze, N. K. (1971) (USSR)  –  Propriétés antimicrobiennes du distillat du miel,
    in Pcelovostvo 91 (1),  31. [xxiii]



  • Malan, C. E.; Marletto, F. (1973/1974)  –  Blastomycetes (yeasts) of honeys according to plant origin and province,
    in Annali del l’Accademia di Agricoltura di Torino, 116,  1-18.



  • Marvin, G. E. (1928) –  The occurrence and characteristics of certain yeasts found in fermented honey,
    in Econ. Entomol. 21 (2),  pp.363-70.



  • Midura, T. F.; Snowden, S.;  Wood, R. M.;  Arnon, S. Stephen (1979)  –  Isolation of Clostridium botulinum from honey,
    in Journal of Clinical Microbiology 9(2),  282-283 (***-abstract). [xxiv]



  • Mizrahi, A.; Doron, R. (1982) (Israel)  –  Antimicrobial effects of hive products,
    in Israel Journal of Medical Science 18,  23.



  • Molan, C. Peter (1997) –  Honey as an antimicrobial agent.
    in: Mizrahi, A. and Lensky, Y. (eds.) Bee Products: Properties, Applications and Apitherapy Plenum Press, New York. Pages 27-37.



  • Obaseiki-Ebor,E.E., Afonya,T.C.A.,  Onyekweli,A.O. (1983)  –  Preliminary report on the antimicrobial activity of honey distillate,
    in Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 35,  748-749.



  • Popa,G., Popa,A.,  Popescu,N.,  Brinzac,V. (1965) (Romania) –  Estimation of bee honey by means of a physicochemical and microbiological examination,
    in the XX-Th. Apimondia Congress, Bucharest, Romania,  452-58 (***).



  • Popescovic,D., Dakic,M.,  Buncic,S.,  Ruzic,P. (1983) (Yugoslavia)   –  Nouvelles recherches sur les propriétés antimicrobiennes du miel (II),
    in the XXIX-Th. Apimondia Congress, Budapest, Hungary,  166 (***-abstract).



  • Popescovic,D., Dakic,M.,  Buncic,S.,  Ruzic,P. (1983) (Yugoslavia)  –  A further investigation on the antimicrobial properties of honey,
    in the XXIX-Th. Apimondia Congress, Budapest, Hungary,  415-417.



  • Popescovic,D., Dakic,M.,  Buncic,S.,  Ruzic,P. (1984) (Yugoslavia)  –  A further investigation on the antimicrobially  properties of honey,
    in Apiacta , # 3,  65-66 (***).



  • Radwan, S. S.; El-Essawy, A. A.;  Sarhan, M. M. (1984)  –  Experimental evidence for the occurrence in honey of specific substances active against microorganisms,
    in Zentralblatt fur Mikrobiologie 139,  249-255.



  • Rahmanian,N., Kouhestani,A.,  Ghavifekr,H.,  Ter-sarkissian,N.,  Olzynamarzys,A.,  Donoso, G. (1970)  –  High ascorbic acid content in some Iranian honeys. Chemical and biological assays,
    in Metab. 12(3),  pp.131-135.



  • Richter, A. A. (1912) –  Über einen osmophilen Organismus, den Hefepilz Zygosaccharomyces mellis acidi sp.,
    in Zentralbl. 1(3/4),  pp.67-76.



  • Rodriguez-Navarro,A., Ruiz-Argueso,T. (1970)  –  Ripening honey bacteria,
    in Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie, 3 (6),  118.



  • Rousseau, M.; Tysset, C.;  Durand, C. (1980)  –  Microbism and wholesomeness of commercial honey,
    in Apiacta 15,  51-60.



  • Ruiz-Argueso,T., Rodriguez-Navarro,A. (1973) –  Gluconic acid – producing bacteria from honeybees and ripening honey,
    in Journal of General Microbiology, 76 (1),  211-216.



  • Ruiz-Argüeso, T.; Rodriquez-Navarro, A. (1975)  –  Microbiology of ripening honey,
    in Microbiol. 30,  pp.893-896.



  • Sedova, N. N.; Usmanov, M. F. (1973)  –  Antimicrobial properties of some types of honey from Uzbekistan,
    in Voprosy Pitaniya 32,  84-85.



  • Somal, N. A. et al. (1994) –  Susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to antiobiotic activity of manuka honey,
    in Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 87,  497-498.



  • Sugiyama, H.; Mills, C. Daniel;  Kuo, L-J. Cathy (1978)  –  Number of Clostridium botulinum spores in honey,
    in Journal of Food Protection 41(11),  848-850. [xxv]



  • Tollofsrud, P. A.; Kvittingen, E. A.;  Granum, P. E.;  Vollo, A.[xxvi] (1998) (Norway)  –  Botulism in new born infants (original article in Norwegian),
    in Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen, Nov 20;118(28),  4355-6. [xxvii]



  • Toth, Gy.; Lemberkovics Eva;  Kutasi-Szabo Juliana (1987) (Hungary)  –  The volatile content of some Hungarian honeys and their antimicrobial effects,
    in the XXXI-St. Apimondia Congress, Warsaw, Poland,  482-86;
    in American Bee Journal 127,  pp.496-497.



  • Toth, Gy.; Lemberkovics Eva;  Kutasi-Szabo Juliana (1987) (Hungary)  –  Les composes  volatiles de quelques sortiments de miel hongrois et leurs effets antimicrobiens,
    in the XXXI-St. Apimondia Congress, Warsaw, Poland,  544-48 (***).



  • Tysset, C.; Durand, C. (1973)  –  De la persistance de quelques gaermes a gram negatif non sporules dans les miels du commerce stockes a la temperature ambiante.
    Nancy: Facul. pharm. assoc. diplom. microbiol. 3-12.



  • Vardi, A.; Barzilay, Z.;  Linder, N.;  Cohen, H. A.;  Paret, G.;  Barzilai, A.[xxviii] (1998) (Israel)  – Local application of honey for treatment of neonatal postoperative wound infection,
    in Acta Paediatr, Apr;87(4),  429-32 (***-abstract). [xxix]



  • Vecchi, M. A.; Zambonelli, C. (1969) (Italy)  –  Research on the microbial content of honey,
    in Ital., 36 (5),  pp.103-08.



  • Vucetic,J.I., Vrvici,M.M.,  Marovic,V.,  Hadji-Djordjevic L. (1981) (Yugoslavia)  –  La composition chimique et les proprietes antibiotiques de sept miels de Yougoslavie.
    in the XXVIII-Th. Apimondia Congress, Acapulco, Mexico.



  • Wadi, M.; Al-Amin,H.;  Farouq,A.;  Kashef,H.;  Khaled,S.A. (1987)  –  Sudanese bee honey in the treatment of suppurated wounds,
    in Arab Medico 3,  16-18.



  • Wahdan, H. A. (1998) –  Causes of the antimicrobial activity of honey,
    in Infection, 26(1),  26-31 (***-abstract). [xxx]



  • White, Jonathan W. (1992) (USA)
    in The Hive and the Honey Bee. Dadant and Sons, Hamilton.



[i] California’s data related to honey and infant botulism.


[ii] Center for Disease Control recommends honey not be fed to infants under one year of age.

Spanish: El Centro de Control de Enfermedades recomienda no alimentar con miel a niños menores de un año


[iii] English: The occasional association of C botulinum spores with infant foods is no longer honey specific and not confined to honeys from the US.


Spanish: La ocasional asociación de esporos del Clost. Botulinum con la comida de
los niños no es más específica de la miel ni propia de la miel de los


[iv] Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Caceres, Spain.
[v] A PCR procedure was developed for the detection of Clostridium botulinum in foods. PCR products were detected in agarose gels and by Southern hybridization. The sensitivity of PCR was tested in broth cultures and in canned asparagus, dry cured ham and honey. The sensitivity of the method in broth was high (2.1-8.1 cfu ml-1) for types A and B, but rather low (10(4) cfu ml-1) for types E and F. However, after enrichment at 37 degrees C for 18 h, it was possible to detect Cl. botulinum types A, B, E and F in food samples at initial levels of about 1 cfu 10 g-1 of food. This PCR detection protocol provides a sensitive and relatively rapid technique for the routine detection of Cl. botulinum in foods.
PMID: 9351261, UI: 98012546.


[vi] Reports on possible routes and vehicles for infant botulism identifying honey as an identified food source, but stressing ubiquitous distribution of spores and unavoidable and generally harmless exposure that they generally produce.


[vii] Review on infant botulism based largely on work in the US.


[viii] Department of Paediatrics, Aalborg Hospital, Denmark.

[ix] Infant botulism is caused by intestinal colonization by Clostridium botulinum, C. barati or C. butyricum. Infant botulism has only rarely been reported outside the USA. A 3-month-old boy developed constipation, lethargy, feeding difficulties and descending, severe, symmetric weakness. He was breastfed but had also been fed honey. Supportive care led to complete recovery. The serum was positive for C. botulinum toxin type A-F (mouse toxin neutralization assay). A strain of C. botulinum producing toxin type A and E was identified in the stool. C. botulinum was identified in a jar of honey of the same brand as the honey fed to the patient. PMID: 9413010, UI: 98074490.


[x] Study of microorganisms in 56 honeys for sale in Germany found no C botulinum but related spores in some samples.


[xi] Stresses the serious nature of infant botulism and objects to claims that a honey-raw milk combination could cure botulism.


[xii] Press release about facts from an association of honey producers.


[xiii] Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San
Luis, Argentina.


[xiv] A total of 177 honey samples were examined for Clostridium botulinum, 68 of which were from commercial origin, 8 from small rural producers for family consumption, and the remaining 6 from fractionizing centers in Mendoza and San Luis provinces in Argentina. C. botulinum type A was detected in two samples of rural producer origin (1.1%) by the centrifugation-dilution method. The strain was recovered from one of the samples, obtaining a spore count of 55/g of honey. Even though the positive percentage was lower than that

found in other countries, honey consumption by children under one year old should be avoided in order to prevent infant botulism.

PMID: 9411489, UI: 97480053

Spanish: Un total de 177 muestras de miel fueron examinadas para el Cl Botul., 68 fueron de origen comercial, 8 de pequeños productores para consumo propio, y 6 de fracciionadores de Mendoza y San Luis. Cl. Botul. fueron encontrados en 2 muestras de pequeños porductores (1,1%). A pesar del hallazgo positivo este fue más bajo que el encontrado en mieles de otros paises; el consumo de miel en menores de un año debería evitarse para prevenir el botulismo infantil.
PMID: 9411489, UI: 97480053

[xv] Area de Microbiologia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Argentina.

[xvi] Five cases of infant botulism which occurred during the period from May 1995 to May 1996 in San Luis,Argentina, are reported. Infant botulism was confirmed in all patients by isolation of Clostridium botulinum type A from stool culture and by the toxin assay. Toxin was found in the serum of one of them. All patients required hospitalization with treatment consisting of supportive especially respiratory and nutritional care. At the time of discharge from the hospital, three patients had a good recovery, although two of them had mild difficulties in

sucking or constipation. C. botulinum was not detected in samples of honey which had been given to two of the patients.

PMID: 9532265, UI: 98193433

Spanish: De los cinco casos de botulismo infantil ocurridos en San Luis, Argentina
entre may/95 y may/96, en dos casos no fue detectado el Clost. Botul. en la
miel que se les había dado a esos niños.

[xvii] Address: Laboratorio Alimenti, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome, Italy.

[xviii] A case of infant botulism in a 9 week-old female is described. A strain of C. botulinum type B was isolated from the feces of the baby. The epidemiologic study detected in a sample of home canned honey Clostridium  botulinum spores of the same serotype that was isolated from the patient. The honey had been used only to sweeten the pacifier of the baby. This is the first case of infant botulism in Europe linked conclusively to honey.
PMID: 8150073, UI: 94200372


[xix] 92 samples, mostly German, but some others, tested without detecting Clostridium botulinum spores.


[xx] 210 samples, mostly German, but some others, tested without detecting Clostridium botulinum spores.


[xxi] Eighty honey samples were tested for Clostridium botulinum spores. All were negative by one method, five and six positive samples by two other testing methods, with some ambiguous results when these were re-tested by yet another method. Bees were experimentally inoculated with spores by feeding sugar-water solution. The spores were incorporated into honey produced.


[xxii] Spores found in 2% of honey samples but 20% of corn syrup samples.

Spanish: En un 2% de muestras de miel fueron encontrados esporos, pero tambien en un
20% de las muestras de almíbares.

  • [xxiii] Makashvilli, Z. A.; Kathzazde, G. K. and  Sakvarelidze, N. K. (1971) (USSR)  –  Propriétés antimicrobiennes du distillat du miel,
    in Pcelovostvo 91 (1),  31.


Result of melange of 3 fractions obtained by distilation of honey, is inhibitor for Bacterium coli communis, Bacterium paracoli, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella flexneri, Shigella stutzeri, Staphylococus aureus, Streptococus aureus, Streptococus haemoliticus and Clostridium perfringens with Staphilococus albus.


[xxiv] Nine of 90 honey samples showed presence of spores, and 6 of the 9 had been fed to babies who developed botulism.


[xxv] Describes culturing method to detect spores in honey. Survey carried out found some spores of both type A and B.


[xxvi] Address: Nyfodtseksjonen, Barneklinikken, Rikshospitalet, Oslo.

[xxvii] Infant botulism, first described in 1976, is the most common form of botulism. The majority of cases are reported from the USA. The disease is rare in Europe, and this article describes the first patient reported in Norway. A three-month-old boy of Norwegian origin who had been fed Argentinian honey developed symptoms of botulism. Electromyography showed presynaptic neuromuscular dysfunction. The diagnosis was confirmed by the demonstration of Clostridium botulinum type A neurotoxin in the faeces. After supportive treatment, breast-milk feeding and lactobacillus supplementation he made a complete recovery. If spores of C. botulinum are ingested, they can bind to the epithelium, germinate and produce toxin which causes botulism. Because of the composition of their intestinal flora, children below one year of age are at risk. Ingestion of honey is a well known risk factor. Contamination of Norwegian honey has never been reported but we recommend that honey should not be given to children during their first year of life.
PMID: 9889606, UI: 99106280.


[xxviii] Address: Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Chaim Sheba Medical Centre, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

[xxix] Honey has been described in ancient and modern medicine as being effective in the healing of various infected wounds. In this report we present our experience in nine infants with large, open, infected wounds that failed to heal with conventional treatment. Conventional treatment was defined as having failed if after > or = 14 d of intravenous antibiotic and cleaning the wound with chlorhexidine 0.05% W/V in aqueous solution and fusidic acid ointment the wound was still open, oozing pus, and swab cultures were positive. All infants showed marked clinical improvement after 5 d of treatment with topical application of 5-10 ml of fresh unprocessed honey twice daily. The wounds were closed, clean and sterile in all infants after 21 d of honey application. There were no adverse reactions to the treatment. We conclude that honey is useful in the treatment of post-surgical wounds that are infected and do not respond to conventional systemic and local antibiotic treatment.
PMID: 9628301, UI: 98290265.


[xxx] Wahdan, H. A. (1998)  –  Causes of the antimicrobial activity of honey,
in Infection, 26(1),  pp.26-31 (abstract).

The present study was performed to clarify the possible causes of the antimicrobial activity of honey. A sugar solution resembling honey in its high sugar content was made. The antimicrobial activities of both honey and this solution towards 21 types of bacteria and two types of fungi were examined. The results achieved by both were compared. The difference between them indicated the presence of antimicrobial substance(s) in honey. The kinds of antimicrobial substances (inhibines) in honey are discussed. Hydrogen peroxide is not the only inhibine in honey. In fact, inhibines in honey include many other substances. Two important classes of these inhibines are the flavonoids and the phenolic acids. Flavonoids have often been extracted from honey previously. In this study two phenolic acids (caffeic acid and ferulic acid) were extracted from honey for the first time.