GENERAL ARTICLES on virology
Propolis blocks the ACE receptors which are important for the penetration of viruses in the cells/vascular system.
Melittin: a venom-derived peptide with promising anti-viral properties – Hamed Memariani, Mojtaba Memariani, Hamideh Moravvej & Mohammad Shahidi-Dadras, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases volume 39, pages 5–17(2020)
Note from the editor:
Most of the propolis tinctures from the market are made with alcohol from 70 to 96%.
Their use in the form of pharyngeal (throat) spray and nebulization (after dilution with honey which is acidic and enriched with essential oils that have a broad antiviral spectrum, see above) is therefore recommended.
Even if the viruses are not completely destroyed (because the concentration of alcohol on the respiratory mucosas is lower than the one from the laboratory tests), the fact that they may be damaged in their structure and/or have their virulence decreased, may be very useful at least from the preventative point of view.