Api-Virology References

VIROLOGY and POLLEN BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Gheorghieva E.; Vasiliev, V. (1983) (Bulgaria)  –  Le pollen dans le traitement des lesions hepatiques chroniques,
    in the XXIX-Th. Apimondia Congress, Budapest, Hungary,  113 (***-abstract).

VIROLOGY and BEE VENOM Bibliography

  • *** (1999) –  Abstract of Papers – Pacific Northwest Apitherapy Conference, Vancouver, Canada, June,  12-14, 1998.
    Apitherapy Education Service – Apitronic Services, pp. 25 (***).

 

  • Kochan, Andrew (2001) (USA) –  Successful treatment of pain in post-herpetic neuralgia with the venom of Apis Mellifera.
    Presented at the third International Varicella Zoster Research Foundation meeting March 2001. [i]

 

  • Maksimenco, V. I. (1960) (USSR) –  Applicacion de venin d’abeille et de miel sur l’herpes des yeux,
    in Pchelovodstvo 37(9),  49-50.

 

  • Rose Amber (1999) (USA) – Progress in Bee Venom Therapy for HIV/AIDS,
    in the XXXVI-th. Apimondia Congress, Vancouver, Canada, pp.73-75 (***).

 

  • Yasin B, Pang M, Turner JS, Cho Y, Dinh NN, Waring AJ, Lehrer RI, Wagar EA. (2000) (USA) – Evaluation of the inactivation of infectious Herpes simplex virus by host-defense peptides,
         in Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. Mar;19(3):187-94.[1]

[1] Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1731, USA. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide microplate assay was adapted to screen for the ability of 20 host-defense peptides to inactivate herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2. The procedure required minimal amounts of material, was reproducible, and was confirmed with standard antiviral testing techniques. In screening tests, with the exception of melittin, a highly cytotoxic and hemolytic peptide found in bee venom, the alpha-helical peptides in our test panel (magainins, cecropins, clavanins, and LL-37) caused little viral inactivation. Several beta-sheet peptides (defensins, tachyplesin, and protegrins) inactivated one or both viruses, sometimes with remarkable selectivity. Two peptides were identified as having antiviral activity against both viruses, indolicidin (a tryptophan-rich peptide from bovine neutrophils) and brevinin-1 (a peptide found in frog skin). The antiviral activity of these two peptides was confirmed with standard antiviral assays. Interestingly, the antiviral activity of brevinin-1 was maintained after reduction and carboxamidomethylation, procedures that abolished its otherwise prominent hemolytic and cytotoxic effects.  PMID: 10795591 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

[i] Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the pain that persists for more than four months following the onset of the rash associated with a herpes zoster (shingles) outbreak. PHN pain is generally characterized by severe unrelenting pain described by patients as either deep aching, burning, sharp, jabbing, electrical, lancinating or a combination of these. Frequently allodynia is a disabling sign. The longer the pain persists the longer it is likely to continue, and many of these elderly patients die with their pain never resolving. The current treatment of post-herpetic neuralgia is unsatisfactory to most sufferers and strictly palliative in nature. These treatments involve tedious repetitive procedures or the taking of medications that may have serious side effects. None of these interventions alter the natural history of the condition. They just decrease the symptoms until spontaneous resolution occurs – if it resolves at all.

Treating pain with the venom of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, dates back several thousand years. Hippocrates and Celsus documented the use of bee venom as a medical treatment. The most frequent use of bee venom today is the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. There are over 20 biologically active peptides in Apis mellifera venom, some of which are anti-inflammatory and others neurotoxic in nature. Animal studies confirm the anti-inflammatory properties of bee venom and it=s ability to suppress adjuvant induced arthritis.

Fourteen PHN patients (average age 72) who suffered pain for an average of 46.1 months (range 5 to 131) were injected at multiple sites (range 3 to 30) with 100 micrograms of dried bee venom in 0.1 cc of 0.5% lidocaine. These sites corresponded to the location of the greatest pain, origins of shooting pain and to areas of cutaneous scarring. The median interval between the first and second visit was three days. Subsequent visits were four days apart. Patients received an average of 14 treatments over a period of 11.7 ” 5.4 weeks.

The mean Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score at the beginning of treatment was 7.6 ” 0.39 and at the end was 2.1 ” 1.1, representing a mean decrease of 5.5 ” 1.1 (p < 0.001). As a group there was a significant decrease in VAS score (p<0.02) after the first treatment. Patients noted a significant decrease in the stabbing component of their pain within two treatments (p<0.01). They also reported a significant decrease in allodynia after one treatment (p<0.02). The difference of the VAS score at the fifth visit and the end of treatment was not significant; thus, in most cases, full benefit was achieved following the fourth treatment. At follow-up, which averaged 21 months from completion of treatment, the group had a mean VAS score of 2.6 ” 1.6, with 4 of the patients pain-free. Initially, 6 patients were taking antidepressants and 4 were taking opioids. By the end of treatment, all 6 patients stopped antidepressants and 3 stopped opioids. Sleep quality improved significantly from the beginning to the end of treatment and continued to be good at follow-up (p<0.001). Most patients reported sleeping better after the first treatment.

The results of treatment in these patients suggest that one or more components of honeybee venom are able to decrease the pain of PHN within four treatments on the average by more than 70%, and in some cases completely. These results are maintained long-term. Treatment with bee venom caused positive changes and gave these patients a significantly better quality of life.


VIROLOGY and HONEY BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • Hegazi, Ahmed Gaffer; El Miniawy, H. F.; El Miniawy F. A. (1995) (Egypt)  –  Effect of some honeybee products on immune response of chicken infected with virulent NDV (Newcastle Disease Virus),
    in Egyptian Journal of Immunology 2 (2),  79-86. [i]

 

  • Hegazi, Ahmed Gaffer; Kawther Y. Awadalla; Mansour, S.M. (1997-c) (Egypt)  –  Influence of honey and propolis on Rift Valley Fever Virus,
    in International Symposium On Apitherapy, Cairo 8-9th, March, 1997.

 

  • Horn Helmut, Lüllmann Cord (1992)  –  Das Große Honigbuch: Enstehung, Gewinnung, Zusammensetzung, Qualität, Gesundheit und Vermarktung.
    Ehrenwirth Verlag
    , München, Germany;
    ISBN 3-431-03208-7; 280 Seiten mit über 90, größtenteils farbigen Abbildungen.

 

  • Maksimenco, V. I. (1960) (USSR) –  Applicacion de venin d’abeille et de miel sur l’herpes des yeux,
    in Pchelovodstvo 37(9),  49-50.

 

  • Nagl Andrea (1998) (Germany) –  Heilen mit Honig. Gesundheit und Genuss aus dem Bienenstock.
    Seehamer Verlag. Weyarn. Germany.
    216 Seiten.
    ISBN 3-932131-62-2.

 

  • Zeina, B.; Othman, O.;  al-Assad, S.[ii] (1996) (Syria)  – Effect of honey versus thyme on Rubella virus survival in vitro,
    in J Altern Complement Med, Fall;2(3),  345-8 (***-abstract). [iii]

 

[i] Hegazi, Ahmed Gaffer; El Miniawy, H. F.;  El Miniawy F. A. (1995) (Egypt)  –  Effect of some honeybee products on immune response of chicken infected with virulent NDV (Newcastle Disease Virus),
in Egyptian Journal of Immunology 2 (2),  pp.79-86.
ABSTRACT: The effect of some bee products on immune response of chicken infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus was investigated. The mortality rate was reduced in groups infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus and subsequently treated either by propolis or honey if compared with the infected group only. It was cleared that the propolis acts actively better as antiviral agent than honey. The treatment with propolis and honey of NDV infected chicken groups induced increase in the antibody titers and phagocytic percentage.

The inoculation of different antigens in the foot pad of sensitized and non
sensitized chickens induced different degrees of foot pad thickness as well as cellular and vascular reaction depending on the type of the sensitizing antigens in foot pad. The most severe reaction was recorded in the honey & NDV group inoculated with NDV antigen. The reaction was typical to Arthus type. In propolis group inoculated with NDV antigen, the reaction was differed and the lymphocytes appeared to play the main role in this reaction which became a delayed type of hypersensitivity.
[ii] Address: Teshreen Hospital, Damascus, Syria.

[iii] In this paper, we assess the antiviral properties of honey solutions and thyme extracts at varying concentrations. This was done by testing these solutions in vitro using monkey kidney cell cultures that were infected with the Rubella virus. Our results indicated that honey had good anti-Rubella activity, while thyme did not. These results may justify the continuing use of honey in traditional medicines from different ethnic communities worldwide and in some modern medications such as cough syrups.
PMID: 9395668, UI: 98051851.


VIROLOGY and Propolis Bibliography

 

  • *** (1999) –  Abstract of Papers – Pacific Northwest Apitherapy Conference, Vancouver, Canada, June,  12-14, 1998.
    Apitherapy Education Service – Apitronic Services, pp. 25 (***).

 

  • Amoros,M., Sauvager,F., Girre,L., Cormier,M. (1992) –  In vitro antiviral activity of propolis,
    in Apidologie, 23(3),  231-40.

 

  • Amoros, M. (1992) –  Synergistic effect of flavones and flavonols against herpes simplex virus  type 1 in cell culture. Comparison with the antiviral activity of propolis,
    in Journal of  Natural Products, Dec, 55(12),  1732-1740.

 

  • Amoros,M., Lurton,E.,  Boustie,J.,  Girre,L.,  Sauvager, F.,  Cormier, M.  (1994)  –  Comparison of the anti-herpes simplex virus activities of propolis and 3-methyl-but-2-enyl caffeate,
    in the J Nat Prod  May,57(5),  644-7 (***-abstract). [i]

 

  • Bankova V.; Popov,S.;  Manolova, N.;  Maximova, V.;  Gegoug G.;  Serkedjieva, J.;  Auzunov, S. (1988) (Bulgaria)  –  On the chemical composition of some propolis fractions with antiviral action,
    in Acta-Microbiol-Bulg. 23,  52-57.

 

  • Bellegrandi, S.; D’Offizi, G.;  Ansotegui, I. J.;  Ferrara, R.;  Scala, E.;  Paganelli, R. (1996)  –  Propolis allergy in an HIV-positive patient,
    in Am. Acad. Dermatol. 35(4),  p.644.

 

  • Binder, Walter (1979) (Germany) –  Kittharz-die antibiotische Alternative,
    in Naturheilpraxis, 5/1979 (***). [ii]

 

  • Bojñanský, V.; Kosljarová V. (1975, 1981, 1990) (Cehoslovacia)  –  Inhibitory effects of propolis on some plant viruses (Romanian),
    in “Propolis”, Apimondia Publishing House, Bucharest, 1981 (III-Rd. ed.),  67-74 (***); 1990, IV-Th. ed.,  pp.73-77 (***).

 

  • Ceplak,A., Matpašic,M. (1978)  –  Contribution to the study of anti-viral effect of  “Apikomplex” product after an influenza epidemic,
    in the Third International Symposium on Apitherapy, Portoroz, Yugoslavia,  366-68 (***).

 

  • Crisan Iuliana, Mutiu,A.,  Sahnazarov Nina,  Cioca Vasilica,  Esanu, V., Popescu Alexandra (1976, 1978, 1990) (Romania) Action of propolis on the in vitro herpes virus,
    in the Second  International Symposium on Apitherapy, Bucharest, Romania, 1976,  191-96 (***);
    in “Propolis, a remarkable hive product”, Apimondia Publishing House, Bucharest, 1978,  pp.156-61 (***);
    in “Propolis”, Apimondia Publishing House, Bucharest, 1990, IV-Th. edition,  pp.120-25 (Romanian) (***).

 

  • Crisan Iuliana, Cioca Vasilica,  Morfei Ana,  Burducea,O., Cajal, N.,  Teleguta Luiza (1978) (Romania)  –  Action of propolis extract on the surface antigen of the hepatitis B as compared to that of some chemical agents,
    in the Third International Symposium on Apitherapy,  Portoroz, Yugoslavia,  1978; French, pp.104-07; English, pp.107-08; German, Russian and Spanish, p.108 (abstract) (***).

 

  • Crisan Iuliana and V. Esanu (1983) (Romania) –  Method for manufacturing of  an antiviral ointment. RO 79519; 30.01.1983, Appl.  101 729; 17.07. 1980. The preparation is for treatment of herpes infections. Contains propolis extract and numerous other ingredients (more details on this in the Chemical Abstracts #
    is CA103& 220838).

 

  • Crisan Iuliana, Petica,M.,  Mutiu,A. (1996) (Romania)  –  Some Morphopathological Aspects of the Experimental Eye Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Rabbits followed by a Treatment with Aqueous Flavonoid Solution obtained from Propolis,
    in Apiacta XXXI, # 3,  72-80 (***).

 

  • Debiaggi, M.; Romero, E. (1990)    Effects of propolis flavonoids  on  virus infectivity and  replication (abstract),
    in Microbiologica, Jul. 13 (3),  207-13 (***).

 

  • Dumitrescu, M. (1992) –  The mechanisms of the antiherpetic action of aqueous propolis extracts I. The antioxidant action on human fibroblast cultures (abstract),
    in Roum. Virol., Jul.-Dec., 43(3-4),  pp.165-73 (***).
  • Dumitrescu, M.; Crisan, I.;  Esanu, V. (1993) (Romania)  – The mechanism of the antiherpetic action of an aqueous propolis extract. The action of the lectins of an aqueous propolis extract,
    in Rev. Roum. Virol., Jan.-Jun., 44(1-2),  pp.49-54 (***). [iii]

 

  • Esanu, V.; Prahoveanu, E.;  Crisan, I.;  Cioca, A. (1981) (Romania)  – The effects of an aqueous propolis extract, of rutin and of a rutin – quercetin mixture on experimental influenza virus infection in mice (abstract),
    in Revue Roumaine de Medecine. Virologie,  – Sept., 32(3),  pp.213-15 (***). [iv]

 

  • Esanu, V. (1981) (Romania) –  Recent advances in the chemotherapy of herpes virus infections,
    in Virologie, 32(1),  57-77 (***). [v]

 

  • Feiks, F. K. (1978) (Austria) –  Topical application of propolis tincture in the treatment of herpes zoster,
    in the Third International Symposium on Apitherapy, Portoroz, Yugoslavia,  109-10 (German = “Über die Wirkungen einer Alkoholischen Propolistinktur bei der Behandlung von Herpes Zoster”); French abstract, p.110; English, Russian and Spanish abstract, p.111 (***).

 

  • Filipic, B.; Likar, M. (1976)  –  Clinical value of royal jelly and propolis against viral infections,
    in the Second International Symposium on Apitherapy, Bucharest, Romania,  118-21 (***);

 

  • Filipic, B.; Likar, M. (1976)  –  Inhibitory effect of propolis and royal jelly on some viruses,
    in “Interferon Scientific Memoranda”, Buffalo, USA, April.

 

  • Filipic, B.; Likar, M. (1978)(Yugoslavia)  –  Effect of Propolis, Royal Jelly and Interferon  on herpes simplex virus,
    in the Third International Symposium on Apitherapy, Portoroz, Yugoslavia,  140-42; French, pp.142-43 (abstract); German, Russian and Spanish, p.143 (abstract) (***).

 

  • Giurcãneanu,C., Crisan,I.,  Cioca,V.,  Ieseanu,V.,  Cajal,N. (1983) (Romania)    La propolis dans le traitement de l`herpes et du zona (abstract),
    in the XXIX-Th. Apimondia Congress, Budapest, Hungary, p.89 (***).

 

  • Giurcaneanu,F.; Crisan, I.; Esanu, V.; Cioca, V.; Cajal, N. (1988) (Romania) Treatment of cutaneous herpes and herpes zoster with Nivcrisol -D (abstract),
    in Virologie, Jan.-Mar. 39(1),  21-24 (***). [vi]

 

  • Hegazi A. G.; El Berdiny, F.;  El Assily, S.;  Khashabah, E.; Hassan, N.; Popov, S. (1993)  –  Studies on some aspects of antiviral activity. 1- Influence of propolis on NDV (Newcastle Disease Virus),
    in Med. J. Giza 41 (2),  pp.53-56.

 

  • Hegazi, Ahmed Gaffer; El Miniawy, H. F.; El Miniawy F. A. (1995) (Egypt)  –  Effect of some honeybee products on immune response of chicken infected with virulent NDV (Newcastle Disease Virus),
    in Egyptian Journal of Immunology 2 (2),  79-86. [vii]

 

  • Hegazi, Ahmed Gaffer; Kawther Y. Awadalla; Mansour, S.M. (1997-c) (Egypt)  –  Influence of honey and propolis on Rift Valley Fever Virus,
    in International Symposium On Apitherapy, Cairo 8-9th, March, 1997.

 

  • Hegazi, Ahmed G.; Ahlam A. Farghal* and Faten K. Abd El Hady[viii] (2000) (Egypt)  –  Antiviral activity and chemical composition of European and Egyptian propolis,
    in the First Argentinean Congress on Propolis, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 1-2, 2000. [ix]

 

  • Hegazi, A. G.; Faten, K. Abd el Hady (2000) (Egypt)  –  Chemical and biological studies of the Egyptian propolis,
    in the First Argentinean Congress on Propolis, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 1-2, 2000. [x]

 

  • Huleihel, M.; Isahano,V.  (2001)  –  Effect of propolis extract on malignant cell transformation by moloney murine sarcoma virus,
    in Archives of Virology, March,  1517-1526

 

  • Iorga, T.; Axinte, N.;  Iorga, I. (1977) (Romania)  –  The antiviral action of propolis in human therapy (Romanian),
    in Apicultura în România,  9,  22-23 (***).

 

  • Ioyrish, N. P.; Derevici Adelina;  Petrescu, Al. (1964) (Romania)  –  The viricidal action of propolis (Romanian),
    in Sez. St. Statiunea de Cercetari Apicole si Sericicole, vol. V.

 

  • Ioyrish, N. P.; Derevici Adelina;  Petrescu, A. (1964)  –  In vitro viricidal action of a preparation based on drones larvaes distillate and  propolis extract (Romanian),
    in Rezumatele lucrãrilor sesiunii stiintifice a statiunii de cercetari apicole si sericicole,  107-10.

 

  • Ioyrish, N.; Derevici, A. and Petrescu, A. (1965) –  Virulicidal action in vitro of alcoholic extracts of drone larvae and propolis,
    in Lucr. ale Statiunii de Cercetari Apicole si Sericicole, 5,  pp.107-110.

 

  • Jucu,V., Gîdoiu,Traian,  Babii Rodica,  Palos Elena (1976, 1978, 1981, 1989, 1990) (Romania)   Research on the protecting action of propolis and bee bread in experimental influenza infection,
    in the Second International Symposium on Apitherapy, 1976,  187-90 (***);
    in “Propolis”, Apimondia Publishing House, 1978,  pp.153-56 (***);
    in “Propolis”, Editura Apimondia, Bucuresti, editia a treia, 1981,  pp.181-84 si in editia  a IV-a, 1990,  pp.128-31 (Romanian) (***);
    in “Produsele stupului, hranã, sãnãtate, frumusete”, Editura Apimondia, Bucuresti, 1989,  pp.59-62 (***).

 

  • König, B.; Dustmann, H. Jost (1986) (Germany)  –  Propolis und Viren: der gegenwärtige Forschungsstand (Propolis and viruses: current status of a research  project),
    in Apidologie 17 (4),  334-36.

 

  • König, B. (1986,1991) (Germany) –  Studien zur antivirotischen Aktivität  von Propolis (Kittharz der Honigbiene, Apis mellifera),
    in Algemeine Deutsche Imker Zeitung, 9/1986;
    BSc Dissertation , Hannover, Germany;
    in Kaal, 1991,  21 (***).

 

  • König, B. (1987) (Germany) –  Antiviral drugs from propolis,
    in Bee World (to be published).

 

  • Korfei, A.; Burducea, O.;  Crisan, I. (1980) (Romania)  –  Investigations concerning the action of several chemical and biological agents on HBsAg,
    in Virologie, Oct-Dec., 31(4),  273-78 (***-abstract).

 

  • Kujumgiev, A.; Tsvetkova I.; Serkedjieva Yu;  Bankova Vassya;  Christov, R.;  Popov,S. (1999) (Bulgaria)  –  Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity of propolis of different geographic origin,
    in Journal of Ethnopharmacology 64,  235-240 (***).

 

  • Maichuk Iu, F.; Orlovskaia, L. E.; Andreev, V. P. (1995) –  The use of ocular drug films of propolis in the sequelae of ophthalmic herpes,
    in Voen Med Zh(12), 36-9,  80 (***-abstract). [xi]

 

  • Maksimova-Todorova V.; Manolova, N.; Gegova, G.; Serkedzhieva, I.; Uzunov, S. (1985) (Bulgaria) –  Antiviral action of fractions isolated from propolis,
    in  Acta-Microbiol-Bulg., 17,   79-85.

 

  • Manolova H.N., Maximova V.A.,  Gegova G.A.,  Serkedjieva J.,  Uzunov,S.T.,  Marekov, N.Ya.,  Bankova V. (1985) (Bulgaria)  –  On the anti-influenza action of fractions from propolis,
    in Compte rendus de l’Academie Bulgaire des Sciences, 6,  735-37.

 

  • Morfei, A; Burducea, O;  Neuman, R;  Cajal, N;  Copelovici, Y; Crisan, I (1980) (Romania)  – Investigations concerning the action of several chemical and biological agents on HbsAg, in Virologie Oct-Dec;31(4),  pp.273-78. [xii]

 

  • Nardi Umberto (1996) (Italy) –  Curarsi con il Miele, Polline, Propoli, Pappa Reale e Veleno d’api.
    Aporie Edizione.
    Roma.
    ISBN 88-85192-11-4.

 

  • Neychev,H.; Dimov, V.; Vuleva, V.; Shirova, L.; Slavcheva, E.; Gegova, G.; Manolova, N.; Bankova, V. (1988) (Bulgaria)Immunomodulatory action of II. Effect of water-soluble fraction on influenza infection in mice,
    in Acta-Microbiol-Bulg., 23,  pp.58-62.

 

  • Ohnishi, E. & Brunai, H. (1993) –  Quercetin potentiates TNF-induced Antiviral Activity,
    in Antiviral Res. 22,  327.

 

  • Park, Kun Yong[xiii]; Ikegaki, M.;  Alencar, S.M. (2000) (Brazil)  –  Classificação das própolis brasileira através de suas características fisico-químicaspropriedades biológicas,
    in the First Argentinean Congress on Propolis, Buenos Aires, Argentina, September 1-2, 2000. [xiv]

 

  • Popescu H. et al. (1985) (Romania) –  Anti-herpes ointment, RO 86,003, 30 Jan 1985; Appl. 108,265  24 Jun 1982. The ointment contains phenol, menthol and propolis extract as active ingredients. (From the Russian Reference Journal 1983, 210219).

 

  • Serkedjieva, J. (1992) –  Anti-influenza virus effect of some propolis constituents and their analogues (esters of substituted cinnamic acids),
    in Journal of Natural Products, Mar. 55(3),  294-302 (***-abstract).

 

  • Shevchenko,L.F., Chasovodtseva O.A.,  Peschanskii,A.N. (1971) (U.S.S.R.)  –  Inhibiting activity of propolis on the influenza virus (Russian),
    in Khimioter. Grippa Mater. Vses. Simp. 1,  pp.56-57.                   (AA 1178/76).

 

  • Skvortov, A. V. (1983) (U.S.S.R.) –  The use of bee products and medicinal plants from Siberia and Altai in the prophylaxy and treatment of respiratory virosis and in increasing the organism’s endurance (Romanian),
    in “The Bee products: Food, Health and Beauty”, Apimondia Publishing House,  Bucharest, Romania,  115-16 (***).

 

  • Smuk, S.; Hren, H. (1978) (Yugoslavia)  –  Antiherpetic effect of some propolis fractions,
    in the Third International Symposium on Apitherapy, Portoroz, Yugoslavia, pp.144-45 (French), p.146 (English, German, Russian and Spanish abstract) (***).

 

  • Su,Z.Z., Grunberger,D.,  Fisher,P.B. (1991)  –  Suppresion of adenovirus type 5 EIA mediated transformation and expression of the transformed phenotype by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE),
    in Carcinogen, 4,  pp.231-42.

 

  • Su, Z. Z.; Lin, J.; Grunberger, D.; Fisher, P. B. (1994) –  Growth suppression and toxicity induced by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in type 5 adenovirus-transformed rat embryo cells correlate directly with transformation progression,
    in Cancer Res, 54(7),  1865-70 (***-abstract). [xv]

 

  • Su, Z. Z.; Lin, J.; Prewett, M.; Goldstein, N. I.; Fisher, P. B. –  Apoptosis mediates the selective toxicity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) toward oncogene-transformed rat embryo fibroblast cells,
    in Anticancer Res, 15(5B),  1841-8 (***-abstract). [xvi]

 

  • Szmeja, Z.; Kulczynski, B.; Sosnowski, Z.; Konopacki, K. (1989) (Poland) –  Therapeutic value of flavonoids in Rhinovirus infections,
    in Otolaryngol Pol, 43(3),  180-84 (***-abstract). [xvii]

 

  • Vachy,R., M. Amoros, F. Sauvager (1990, 1991) (France)  –  Synergistic virucidal composition containing a phenol compound and propolis useful against lipidic capsid viruses, especially herpes viruses. PCT Int. Appl. WO91 13,626, 19 Sep 1991; FR Appl. 90?3,093 12 Mar 1990 (CA116: 76341 w).

 

  • Vlietinck,A.J., De Bruyne,T.,  Apers,S., & Pieters,L.A. (1998)  –  Plant-derived leading compounds for chemotherapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection,
    in Planta Med 64(2),  97-109 (***). [xviii]

 

[i] Amoros,M.,  Lurton,E.,  Boustie,J.,  Girre,L.,  Sauvager, F., 

Cormier, M.  (1994)  –  Comparison of the anti-herpes simplex virus activities of propolis and 3-methyl-but-2-enyl caffeate,
in the J Nat Prod  May,57(5),  p.644-7 (***-abstract).

The in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 of 3-methyl-

but-2-enyl caffeate isolated from poplar buds or prepared by synthesis was

investigated. Under conditions of one or multiple multiplication cycles,

this compound, which is a minor constituent of propolis, was found to

reduce the viral titer by 3 log10, and viral DNA synthesis by 32-fold.

 

[ii]

Kittharz – die antibiotische  Alternative

von Walter Binder (Naturheilpraxis 5/79)

 

 

Das Kittharz der Bienen hat nach Auffassung zahlreicher Forscher in aller Welt, insbesondere in Rumänien, der UdSSR, den USA und in Dänemark eine hervorragende antibiotische Wirkung.  Eine stattliche Kasuistik untermauert diese Meinung Zunächst muß festgestellt werden, daß die Lebensform Biene, so wie sie heute in Erscheinung tritt, seit 42 Millionen Jahren existiert und eine abgrundtiefe Zahl anderer Insektenformen überlebt hat.  Das hat sicher seinen Grund.  Die ihr zugedachte Rolle, einmal die Bestäubung der Blüten, zum anderen die Verbreitung verschiedenster Pflanzensamen, hat ja auf die Pflanzenwelt eine mutagen-dynamisierende Wirkung und hilft ihren Bestand sichern.

Wenn eine bestimmte Tierart in unserer Biosphäre überlebt, dann muß ihr Organismus eine Reihe von wirksamen Programmen haben, die im Notfall rechtzeitig einsetzen.  Unter den entscheidenden Eigenschaften ist wohl die wichtigste jene, wirksame Abwehrmechanismen gegen Mikro- wie auch Makro-aggressoren zu besitzen.  Gerade diese Eigenschaften, eine universelle bakterizide und eine bakteriostatische Sekretproduktion, besitzen die Bienen.  Daß z. B. in einem Bienenkorb von, Kubikmeter Volumen, ohne endemische Einbrüche 50.000 bis 60.000 Insekten auf engsten Raum und unter feuchttropischen Klima existieren, erscheint wie ein Wunder.  Deshalb ist es auch einleuchtend, daß alle Produkte, die mit dem Speichel der Biene verarbeitet werden, von Bakterien, Viren und Pilzen nicht angegriffen werden können.

Den-Kittharz (auch Propolis genannt) besorgen die Kittharzbienen im Spätsommer und Herbst (August bis Oktober), wenn durch starke Sonneneinstrahlung.die Bäume harzen und das Harz flüssig genug ist für den Transport.  Die Harzpartikel werden mit dem enzymreichen Speichel löslich gemacht und in den Kitthöschen deponiert. Im Stock übernehmen andere Arbeitsbienen den Kittharz, speicheiln ihn erneut ein und verschließen damit alle Ritzen und Spalten in der Stockwandung.  Auch das Flugloch wird mit Kittharz eingefaßt.  Es kommt den Bienen darauf an, sich für die kommenden Wintermonate vor Feuchtigkeit, Kälte, Zugluft, und, was das allerwichtigste ist, vor Mikro- und Makroorganismen zu schützen.

Unter anderem verwenden die Bienen den Kittharz auch zur Mumifizierung größerer Tiere, die nicht mehr aus dem Stock entfernt werden können, z.-B. kleine Eidechsen, größere Käfer usw.  Der Kittharz hat eine hervorragende konservierende Wirkung, und verhindert die bakterielle Zersetzung.  Befallen verschiedene Mikroorganismen z. B. der Pilz Aspergillus flavus die Bienenbrut, so werden die Pilzverseuchten Strecklarven sofort mit Kittharz bedeckt und damit auch die resistenten Sporen unschädlich gemacht.

 

 

Ersatz für Penicillin

 

Nun zum medizinischen Teil : Mikrobiologische Untersuchungen mit Tuberkelbazillen wurden bereits in Dänemark (1948 ) gemacht.  Dabei hat sich ein wäßriger Extrakt aus Propolis gegen die an sich resistenten Bakterien als wirksam erwiesen.  Später wurden erstmals an der TU in Kopenhagen Propolisextrakte an 30 verschiedenen Mikroorganismen angewandt und eine wachstumshemmende Wirkung beobachtet. 1968 untersuchten die dänischen Forscher Jens Hoiriis Nielsen und Hans Erik Christensen die Wirksamkeit von äthanolischen Propolisauszug gegen Schmarotzerpilze.  Das Ergebnis verlief für alle Pilze tödlich.  In einem Parallelversuch wurden 15 Propolisproben gegen 39 Bakterienstämme und 20 Schmarotzerpilzen angewandt.  Davon wurden 24 Bakterienstämme in ihrem Wachstum gehemmt und alle 20 Pilzarten getötet.  Die rumänischen Wissenschaftler.  A. Derevici und A. Popesku fanden heraus, daß-Propolisextrakte auf Enterococcen eine absolut tödliche Wirkung haben, jedoch nicht auf Staphylococcen.  Am staatlichen Forschungsinstitut für Medizin in Kazan (UdSSR) (1963) wurden  50 Tuberkulosepatienten mit einer propolishaltigen Ernährung kurmäßig versorgt.  Das Resultat war außerordentlich zufriedenstellend.  Todorov, ein bekannter bulgarischer Wissenschaftler, entdeckte die günstige Wirkung von Propolisextrakt auf das vegetative Nervensystem und beobachtete eine Gefäßerweiterung im mittleren Arterienbereich.  Das wissenschaftliche Institut für Röntgenologie, Radiologie und Onkologie in Kiew (UdSSR) hat nach Strahlenverbrennungen die Haut mit Propolissalben erfolgreich behandeln können.  Am staatlichen Laboratorium in Baschkirien (UdSSR) veröffentlichte der Wissenschaftler Tjeannitsjev einen profunden Bericht über die spezifischen Eigenschaften des Propolis gegenüber der Abwehr und wies auch eine hämatogene Wirkung nach.  Seine Forschungsergebnisse belegte er mit 2000 Versuchen an Patienten.

 

Nach seiner statistischen Studien der Kasuistik sind die größten Erfolge bei Infektionen des Nasen-Rachenraumes zu verzeichnen.  Es folgen Rhinitis, Sinusitis, Otitis media, Conjunktivitis, verschiedene Influenzaformen, unklare grippöse Infekte mit bronchitischer, Tendenz, Pyelonephritis, Cystitis, Prostatitis, Colitis, alle Enteritiden, Gastritis, Ulcus Duodenum sowie Magengeschwüre.

 

Extern:  Ekzeme vor allem Mykosen, Ulcus cruris, nekrotische Gewebsprozesse, Brand, Karbunkel, und auch Phlegmonöse Entartungen.

 

Es läßt sich ohne Übertreibung sagen, daß Propolis die allmählich stumpf werdende Penicillinwaffe ersetzen könnte.  Vor allem die einmaligen Ergebnisse von Z. G. Tjeannitsjev geben zu denken.  Er hebt im besonderen hervor, daß die Phagozytenzahl merklich ansteigt, die Emigrationsgeschwindigkeit der Leukozyten beträchtlich zunimmt und im serologischen Test die Antikörper erhöht waren.  Ihre Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit mit dem Antigen scheint vergrößert.  Außerdem sein die fibrinolytischen Faktoren vermehrt und die roten Blutkörperchen zahlreicher. Er konnte auch an Hand seiner Kasuistik nachweisen, daß die Zahl der Koagulopathien spürbar sank.

 

Resümee:              Die Wirkung.von Kittharz und seine komplexe Einflußnahme auf den Organismus ist um so rätselhafter, wenn man die chemische Inhaltsanalyse dazu vergleicht: 55 % Harz und Balsam, 30% Wachs, 10% flüchtige Öle, 5% Pollen, und als mineralische Verbrennungsrückstände: Calcium, Aluminium, Vanadium, Mangan und Silicium.

Einerseits scheint es auf das erythropoetische System eine gewisse Anstoßwirkung zu haben, das gesamte RES zu aktivieren, die fibrinolytische Entstehung in der Leber und seine hämatogene Entfaltung zu begünstigen, auf die Bakterienbesiedelung des enteralen Abschnittes selektpositiv einzuwirken, andererseits den adrenerg bedingten Hochdruck im  mittleren Arterienbereich und Arteriolensystem durch sympathatikolytische Einflüsse zu senken.  Fraglich ist auch eine anabol-hormonale Wirkung.  Extern fördert Propolis die Granulierung und Epithelisierung von Wunden, Ekzemen und gutartigen Hautentartungen.

 

 

[iii] Dumitrescu, M.;  Crisan, I.;  Esanu, V. (1993) (Romania)  – The mechanism of the antiherpetic action of an aqueous propolis extract. II. The action of the lectins of an aqueous propolis extract,
in Rev. Roum. Virol., Jan.-Jun., 44(1-2),  pp.49-54 (***).

 

The report brings proofs of the presence of a lectin in the water propolis extract. It was detected in human fibroblast extracts previously treated with the propolis extract. Presence of the lectin was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS.

 

[iv] Esanu, V.; Prahoveanu, E.; Crisan, I.;  Cioca, A. (1981) (Romania)  – The effects of an aqueous propolis extract, of rutin and of a rutin – quercetin mixture on experimental influenza virus infection in mice (abstract),
            in  Virologie,  Jul. – Sept., 32(3),  pp.213-15 (***).

 

Investigations were performed on the effect of an aqueous propolis extract, of rutin and of a rutin-quercetin mixture on experimental infection with influenza virus A/PR8/34 (H0N1) in mice. Propolis extract administered intranasally 3 hours before virus inoculation led to a reduction of the HA titers recorded in the lung suspensions from infected mice, but to no reduction in mortality or increase in mean survival length. When the extract was administered 3 hours after virus inoculation, the reduction in HA titer was accompanied by a slight decrease in mortality and increase in mean survival length, Rutin and the rutin-quercetin mixture caused an increase in both HA titer and mortality.

 

[v] Esanu, V. (1981) (Romania)  –  Recent advances in the chemotherapy of herpes virus infections,
in Virologie, 32(1),  pp.57-77 (***).
The main categories of antiherpes agents presently used in chemotherapy area reviewed according to the phase of virus replication affected : 1) virus adsorption (adamantane, nonionic surfactants) ; 2) eclipse (interferon) ; 3) virion maturation (nucleoside and nucleotide analogues and phosphonic acid derivatives). Mention is also made of other compounds–different synthetic organic derivatives, photodynamic dyes, metal ions, boric acid, hormones, antibiotics, other natural products (extracts from marine algae, propolis, garlic)–with promising antiviral properties. The difficulties and prospects of viral chemotherapy research are briefly discussed.

 

[vi] Giurcaneanu,F.; Crisan, I.; Esanu, V.; Cioca, V.; Cajal, N. (1988) (Romania) – Treatment of cutaneous herpes and herpes zoster with Nivcrisol -D (abstract),
in Virologie, Jan.-Mar. 39(1),  pp.21-24.

The results obtained at the Dermatological service of the Colentina Hospital show that the product NIVCRISOL-D, containing propolis, has a significant therapeutical effect against recurrent herpes and zona zoster.

 

[vii] Hegazi, Ahmed Gaffer; El Miniawy, H. F.;  El Miniawy F. A. (1995) (Egypt)  –  Effect of some honeybee products on immune response of chicken infected with virulent NDV (Newcastle Disease Virus),
in Egyptian Journal of Immunology 2 (2),  pp.79-86.
ABSTRACT: The effect of some bee products on immune response of chicken infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus was investigated. The mortality rate was reduced in groups infected with virulent Newcastle disease virus and subsequently treated either by propolis or honey if compared with the infected group only. It was cleared that the propolis acts actively better as antiviral agent than honey. The treatment with propolis and honey of NDV infected chicken groups induced increase in the antibody titers and phagocytic percentage.

The inoculation of different antigens in the foot pad of sensitized and non
sensitized chickens induced different degrees of foot pad thickness as well as cellular and vascular reaction depending on the type of the sensitizing antigens in foot pad. The most severe reaction was recorded in the honey & NDV group inoculated with NDV antigen. The reaction was typical to Arthus type. In propolis group inoculated with NDV antigen, the reaction was differed and the lymphocytes appeared to play the main role in this reaction which became a delayed type of hypersensitivity.
[viii] National Research Center and *Animal Health Research Institute, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

Fax: +2023370931 –  Email: ahmedgaffer@frcu.eun.eg // samira@mena.org.eg

 

[ix] Abstract

Four propolis samples from Austria, Egypt, France and Germany were investigated by GC/MS, where twenty compounds were being new for propolis. The samples showed some similarities in their qualitative composition. Phenylethyl-trans-caffeate, benzyl ferulate and galangin were predominant in German propolis. Benzyl caffeate was predominant in French sample. Pinocembrin was predominant in French and Austrian propolis and trans-p-coumaric acid was predominant in all samples. Egyptian propolis is characterized by the presence of unusual esters of caffeic acid with C12- C16 fatty alcohols, mainly saturated.

 

The antiviral activity propolis samples from Austria, Egypt, France and Germany against avian Roe virus and Infectious Bursal Disease virus was evaluated. All propolis samples reduced the viral infectivity but it is varied according to the propolis origin. Egyptian propolis showed the highest antiviral activity against Roe virus and Infectious Bursal Disease virus.

 

Key words: Propolis, GC/MS, Polyphenols, Antimicrobial Activity.

 

[x] Propolis (bee glue) is the substance used by bees as a draught exuded and general purpose scalar for their hives. Propolis contains a number of phenolic constituents with antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, immunostimulant and antioxidant activities.

Egyptian propolis was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. 31 peaks were located of which 26 representing 25 compounds were identified. Seven compounds were identified in Egyptian propolis for the first time.

The constituents were phenolic acid esters (72.7 %); phenolic acids (1.1 %); aliphatic acids (2.4 %); dihydrochalcones (6.5 %); Chalcones (1.7 %); flavanones (1.9 %); flavones (4.6 %) and tetrahydrofuran derivatives (0.7 %). It was clear that phenolic acid esters are present in a major quantity (72.7 %).

Evaluation of Egyptian propolis as immunostimulant, antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal agent were done and showed that the Egyptian propolis has such activities.

 

[xi] Maichuk Iu, F.; Orlovskaia, L. E.; Andreev, V. P. (1995)  –  The use of ocular drug films of propolis in the sequelae of ophthalmic herpes,
in Voen Med Zh(12), 36-9,  p.80 (abstract).

There was studied the therapeutic efficiency of ocular medical propolis films (OMF) in 35 patients with postherpetic trophic keratitis and in 20 with postherpetic nebula. OMF were applied behind the lower eyelid at bedtime during 10-15 days. All the patients endured the propolis films well. OMF accelerated the cornea epithelization. Epitheliopathy and micropoint edema of cornea epithelium rapidly disappeared. Time of patients recovery reduced nearly twice (P,001) in comparison with the control group–from 14.1 to 7.6 days. On the average their visual acuity increased in two times–from 0.12 to 0.27 (P > 0.001).

 

[xii] ABSTRACT:

Native and purified HBsAg preparations were subjected in

vitro to the action of cetylpyridinium bromide (Bromocet),

hibitan-chlorhexidine (Hibiscrub), chloramine B and

propolis extract, at different concentrations and for various

time intervals. The effect of these agents on the serological

reactivity of HBsAg was tested by electroimmunodiffusion

(EID) and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Chloramine B and the

propolis extract had a significant inhibitory

effect-ascertained by both EID and RIA – on purified

HBsAg, but not on the native preparation. The inhibition

exerted by Bromocet and Hibiscrub indicated by EID

results was not confirmed by RIA.

CITATION IDS:  PMID: 7257176 UI: 81251020.

 

[xiii] Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos, Caixa Postal 6177, CEP 13081 – 970, Campinas – SP, Fone: 55-19-788-7055, Fax: 55-19-788-7890. Email: ykpark@fea.unicamp.br

 

[xiv] We have collected 500 propolis samples which were collected by Africanized Apis mellifera in Southern, Southeastern, Central western, and Northeastern Brazil. The respective samples were extracted with ethanol. The ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) were analyzed by physicochemical methods such as appearance of EEP, measurement of absorption spectra by UV-spectrophotometry, reversed phase-thin layer chromatography (RP-HPTLC), reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and then the EEPs were evaluated their physiological activities such as antioxidant activity, antimicrobial activity, assay of cytotoxic activity to cancer cells, and HIV-growth inhibition assays. In accordance with results of EEP appearance, UV-absorption spectra, RP-HPTLC, and RP-HPLC, the propolis were classified as 12 groups. Among 12 groups of propolis, five groups of propolis were collected from Southern Brazil, whereas six groups of propolis were collected from Northeastern Brazil. Furthermore, one group of propolis was found in Southeastern Brazil. It was found that the variety of propolis is depending on plant ecology. Although rarely exceptional propolis was found in spite of geographic locations, these propolis were not included in this study. Physiological activities for 12 groups of propolis were also variables, depending on geographical location. This is due to fact that the compositions of propolis are depending on the compositions in plants.

 

[xv] Su, Z. Z.; Lin, J.; Grunberger, D.; Fisher, P. B. (1994)  –  Growth suppression and toxicity induced by caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in type 5 adenovirus-transformed rat embryo cells correlate directly with transformation progression,
in Cancer Res, 54(7),  pp.1865-70 (abstract).

The active component of the honeybee hive product propolis, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), induces a selective growth suppressive and toxic effect toward cloned rat embryo fibroblast cells transformed by adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) or the Ad5 E1A transforming gene versus untransformed cloned rat embryo fibroblast cells (Z-z. Su et al., Mol. Carcinog., 4: 231-242, 1991). The present study was conducted to determine whether CAPE-induced growth suppression/toxicity was a direct result of expression of the Ad5 E1A and E1B transforming genes or a consequence of the action of these genes resulting in the transformed state. For this investigation we used somatic cell hybrids and 5- azacytidine-treated Ad5-transformed rat embryo cells that display different stages of expression of the transformed phenotype. This series of cell lines has permitted us to determine whether expression of the transformed state and the stage of transformation progression regulates CAPE sensitivity. Evidence is presented indicating that sensitivity to CAPE is directly determined by the state of expression of the transformed progression phenotype, as opposed to simply the expression of the Ad5 E1A and E1B transforming genes. These results provide further evidence that CAPE may represent a unique compound that can specifically target progressed transformed cells for growth suppression and toxicity. An understanding of the mechanism underlying this selective effect of CAPE could result in the identification of important biochemical pathways mediating cellular transformation and progression of the transformed state.

 

[xvi] Su, Z. Z.; Lin, J.; Prewett, M.; Goldstein, N. I.; Fisher, P. B.  –  Apoptosis mediates the selective toxicity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) toward oncogene-transformed rat embryo fibroblast cells,
in Anticancer Res, 15(5B),  pp.1841-8 (abstract).

The active component of the folk medicine propolis, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), displays selective toxicity toward cloned rat embryo fibroblast (CREF) cells transformed by a spectrum of diverse acting oncogenes. Identification of the mode of action of CAPE should provide useful information for possible applications of this compound for cancer therapy. The present study uses a series of oncogene transformed, oncogene-reverted and CAPE-resistant oncogene transformed CREF cells to investigate the mechanism underlying the increased sensitivity of transformed cells to CAPE. A direct relationship exists between the cytotoxic effects of CAPE and the induction of DNA fragmentation and apoptosis. DNA degradation into nucleosomal fragments and apoptotic shifts in DNA cell cycle profiles occur in CAPE-treated CREF cells transformed by wild-type 5 adenovirus (Ad5), a mutant Ad5 (H5hr1), the wild-type Ad5 E1A transforming gene, v-src, Ha-ras and the human papilloma virus type 18 transforming genes (HPV-18). In contrast, untransformed CREF cells, human fibroblast expression library-induced morphological revertants of Ad5- and v-src-transformed CREF cells, and Krev-1 expressing revertant Ha-ras-transformed CREF cells are resistant to CAPE-induced toxicity and apoptosis. Similarly, mutant Ad5- transformed CREF cells selected by step-wise growth in increasing concentrations of CAPE are resistant to growth inhibition and apoptosis induced by CAPE. These findings indicate that expression of the transformed phenotype by rodent cells evokes sensitivity to CAPE induced toxicity through apoptosis. The acquisition of CAPE sensitivity in rodent cells is independent of the mode of action of the oncogenic agent. CAPE may prove useful as an antiproliferative agent in cancer cells transformed by mechanistically diverse acting oncogenes.

 

[xvii] Szmeja, Z.; Kulczynski, B.; Sosnowski, Z.; Konopacki, K. (1989)  –  Therapeutic value of flavonoids in Rhinovirus infections,
in Otolaryngol Pol, 43(3),  pp.180-84 (abstract).

The clinic evaluation of the Canadian pharmacologic agent “propolis” verified its value known from the literature in common cold infections. 50 persons were treated in ENT Clinic of Marcinkowski’s Medical Academy in Poznan during the 1987 year. The observed therapeutic effects were shortening of the disease duration. The regression of symptoms occurred in the first day of the therapy and the complete recovery followed in 1 day in 5 patients, in 2 day in 16, and in 3 day in 3. The placebo group has his full recovery in mean 4.80 days. In the therapeutic group the symptoms lasted 2.5 time shorter than in placebo one.

 

  • [xviii] Vlietinck,A.J., De Bruyne,T.,  Apers,S., & Pieters,L.A. (1998)  –  Plant-derived leading compounds for chemotherapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection,
    in Planta Med 64(2), 97-109 (***).

Many compounds of plant origin have been identified that inhibit different stages in the

replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): 1) virus adsorption: chromone alkaloids (schumannificine), isoquinoline alkaloids (michellamines), sulphated polysaccharides and polyphenolics, flavonoids, coumarins (glycocoumarin, licopyranocoumarin) phenolics (caffeic acid derivatives, galloyl acid derivatives, catechinic acid derivatives), tannins and triterpenes (glycyrrhizin and analogues, soyasaponin and analogues); 2) virus-cell fusion: lectins (mannose- and N-acetylglucosamine-specific) and triterpenes (betulinic acid and analogues); 3) reverse transcription; alkaloids (benzophenanthridines, protoberberines, isoquinolines, quinolines), coumarins (calanolides and analogues), flavonoids, phloroglucinols, lactones (protolichesterinic acid), tannins, iridoids (fulvoplumierin) and triterpenes; 4) integration:

coumarins (3- substituted-4-hydroxycoumarins), depsidones, O-caffeoyl derivatives, lignans (arctigenin and analogues) and phenolics (curcumin); 5) translation: single chain ribosome inactivating proteins (SCRIP’s); 6) proteolytic cleavage (protease inhibition): saponins (ursolic and maslinic acids), xanthones (mangostin and analogues) and coumarins; 7) glycosylation: alkaloids including indolizidines (castanospermine and analogues), piperidines (1-deoxynojirimicin and analogues) and pyrrolizidines (australine and analogues); 8) assembly/release: naphthodianthrones (hypericin and pseudohypericin), photosensitisers

(terthiophenes and furoisocoumarins) and phospholipids. The target of action of several anti-HIV substances including alkaloids (O-demethyl-buchenavianine, papaverine), polysaccharides (acemannan), lignans (intheriotherins, schisantherin), phenolics (gossypol, lignins, catechol

dimers such as peltatols, naphthoquinones such as conocurvone) and saponins (celasdin B, Gleditsia and Gymnocladus saponins), has not been elucidated or does not fit in the proposed scheme. Only a very few of these plant-derived anti-HIV products have been used in a limited number of patients suffering from AIDS viz. glycyrrhizin, papaverine, trichosanthin,

castanospermine, N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimicin and acemannan.


VIROLOGY and ROYAL JELLY BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • *** (1999) –  Abstract of Papers – Pacific Northwest Apitherapy Conference, Vancouver, Canada, June,  12-14, 1998.
    Apitherapy Education Service – Apitronic Services, pp. 25 (***).

 

  • Filipic, B.; Likar, M. (1976, 1989)  –  Clinical value of royal jelly and propolis against viral infections,
    in the Second International Symposium on Apitherapy, Bucharest, Romania, 1976,  118-21 (***);
    in “Produsele stupului, hranã, sãnãtate, frumusete”, Editura Apimondia, Bucuresti, 1989,  pp.70-73 (Romanian) (***).

 

  • Maly E, Pacenovska M. (1966) – Successful treatment of warts by royal jelly (article in Czech),
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    PMID: 5945999 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE].

 

  • Nardi Umberto (1996) (Italy) –  Curarsi con il Miele, Polline, Propoli, Pappa Reale e Veleno d’api.
    Aporie Edizione.
    Roma.
    ISBN 88-85192-11-4.

VIROLOGY and APILARNIL Bibliography

  • Ioyrish, N.; Derevici, Adelina and Petrescu, A. (1965)  –  Virulicidal action in vitro of alcoholic extracts of drone larvae and propolis,
    in Lucr. Stiint. ale Statiunii de Cercetari Apicole si Sericicole, 5,  107-110.