Value-added products from beekeeping

VALUE-ADDED PRODUCTS FROM BEEKEEPING

 

Table of Contents

 

by
R. Krell

 

 

 

FAO AGRICULTURAL SERVICES BULLETIN No. 124

 

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome 1996

 

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion what so ever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

 

M-24
ISBN 92-5-103819-8

 

Copyright

 

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Contents

 

FOREWORD

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 What are value added products from beekeeping? 
1.2 The purpose of this bulletin 
1.3 How to use this bulletin

 

CHAPTER 2 HONEY 

2.1 Introduction 
2.2 Physical characteristics of honey 
2.3 The composition of honey 
2.4 The physiological effects of honey 
2.4.1 Unconfirmed circumstantial evidence 
2.4.2 Scientific evidence 
2.5 The uses of honey today 
2.5.1 As a food 
2.5.2 As a food ingredient 
2.5.3 As an ingredient in medicine-like products 
2.5.4 Products of honey fermentation 
2.5.5 Others 
2.6 Honey harvesting and processing 
2.6.1 Colony management 
2.6.2 Unifloral honeys 
2.6.3 Contamination during production 
2.6.4 Contamination during harvesting 
2.6.5 Cleanliness 
2.6.6 Processing 
2.6.7 Purification 
2.6.8 Moisture content 
2.6.9 Prevention of fermentation 
2.6.10 Heating 
2.6.11 Packaging 
2.7 Storage 
2.8 Quality control 
2.9 Caution 
2.10 Market outlook 
2.11 Honey from other bees 
2.12 Recipes 
2.12.1 Liquid honey 
2.12.2 Creamed honey 
2.12.3 Comb honey 
2.12.4 Mead 
2.12.5 Honey beer 
2.12.6 Honey liqueurs 
2.12.7 Honey spreads 
2.12.8 Honey with fruits and nuts 
2.12.9 Honey with pollen and propolis 
2.12.10 Honey paste for dressing wounds 
2.12.11 Sugar substitution 
2.12.12 Fruit marmalade 
2.12.13 Honey jelly 
2.12.14 Syrups 
2.12.15 Rose honey 
2.12.16 Caramels 
2.12.17 Nougat and torrone 
2.12.18 Honey gums 
2.12.19 Gingerbread 
2.12.20 Marzipan 
2.12.21 Honey in bakery products

 

CHAPTER 3 – POLLEN

 

3.1 Introduction 
3.2 Physical characteristics of pollen 
3.3 The composition of pollen 
3.4 The physiological effects of pollen 
3.4.1 Unconfirmed circumstantial evidence 
3.4.2 Scientific evidence 
3.5 The uses of pollen today 
3.5.1 As medicine 
3.5.2 As food 
3.5.3 In cosmetics 
3.5.4 For pollination 
3.5.5 For pollution monitoring 
3.6 Pollen collection 
3.7 Pollen buying 
3.8 Storage 
3.9 Quality control 
3.10 Caution 
3.11 Market outlook 
3.12 Recipes 
3.12.1 Pollen extract 
3.12.2 Beebread (after Dany,1988) 
3.12.3 Honev with pollen 
3.12.4 Granola or breakfast cereals 
3.12.5 Candy bars 
3.12.6 Pollen supplements and substitutes in beekeeping 
3.12.7 Cosmetics 
3.12.8 Pills and capsules

 

CHAPTER 4 – WAX

 

4.1 Introduction 
4.2 Physical characteristics of bees wax 
4.3 The composition of beeswax 
4.4 The physiological effects of wax 
4.5 The uses of wax today 
4.5.1 In beekeeping 
4.5.2 For candle making 
4.5.3 For metal castings and modelling 
4.5.4 In cosmetics 
4.5.5 Food processing 
4.5.6 Industrial technology 
4.5.7 Textiles 
4.5.8 Varnishes and polishes 
4.5.9 Printing 
4.5.10 Medicine 
4.5.11 Others 
4.6 Wax collection and processing 
4.7 Buying 
4.8 Storage 
4.9 Quality control 
4.10 Market outlook 
4.11 Recipes 
4.11.1 Bleached wax 
4.11.2 Candle makin2 
4.11.3 Cosmetics 
4.11.4 Grafting wax for horticulture 
4.11.5 Polishes and varnishes 
4.11.6 Cravons 
4.11.7 Leather preserves 
4.11.8 Waterproofing textiles and paper 
4.11.9 Paint 
4.11.10 Wood preservative 
4.11.11 Swarm lure 
4.11.12 Topical ointment for burns 
4.11.13 Veterinary wound cream 
4.11.14 Adhesive 
4.11.15 Determination of saponification cloud point 
(1uoted from ITCg 1978)

 

CHAPTER 5 – PROPOLIS

 

5.1 Introduction 
5.2 Physical characteristics of propolis 
5.3 The composition of propolis 
5.4 The physiological effects of propolis 1 
5.4.1 Unconfirmed circumstantial evidence 
5.4.2 Scientific evidence 
5.5 The uses of propolis today 
5.5.1 In cosmetics 
5.5.2 In medicine 
5.5.3 Traditional use 
5.5.4 Food technology 
5.5.5 Others 
5.6 Formulations and application methods for human and animal use 
5.6.1 Raw 
5.6.2 Liquid extracts 
5.6.3 Additives 
5.6.4 Injection 
5.7 Extraction methods 
5.8 Collection 
5.9 Buying 
5.10 Storage 
5.11 Quality control 
5.12 Market outlook 
5.13 Caution 
5.14 Patents including propolis 
5.15 Information sources 
5.16 Recipes 
5.16.1 Ointments 
5.16.2 Oral and nasal spravs 
5.16.3 Suntan lotions 
5.16.4 Propolis syrups or honeys 
5.16.5 Propolis tablets 
5.16.6 Propolis shampoo 
5.16.7 Anti-dandruff lotion 
5.16.8 Propolis toothpaste 
5.16.9 Anaesthetic propolis paste 
5.16.10 Creams 
5.16.11 Facial masks 
5.16.12 Micro-encapsulation 
5.16.13 Ouality tests for antioxidant activity

 

CHAPTER 6 – ROYAL JELLY 

6.1 Introduction 
6.2 Physical characteristics of royal jelly 
6.3 The composition of royal jelly 
6.4 The phsiological effects of royal jelly 
6.4.1 On honeybees 
6.4.2 Unconfirmed circumstantial evidence 
6.4.3 Scientific evidence 
6.5 Uses and marketing of royal jelly 
6.5.1 Dietary supplement 
6.5.2 As ingredient in food products 
6.5.3 As ingredient in medicine-like products 
6.5.4 Ingredient in cosmetics 
6.5.5 Others 
6.6 Royal jelly collection 
6.7 Storage 
6.8 Quality control 
6.9 Caution 
6.10 Market outlook 
6.11 Recipes 
6.11.1 Freeze-dried (lyouhilised) royal iellvy 
6.11.2 Honey with royal jelly 
6.11.3 Yoghurt with royal lelly 
6.11.4 Jellies and soft caramels 
6.11.5 Liquid preparations 
6.11.6 Dried juice concentrate 
6.11.7 Tablets 
6.11.8 Capsules 
6.11.9 Cosmetics

 

CHAPTER 7 VENOM 

7.1 Introduction 
7.2 Physical characteristics of venom 
7.3 The composition of venom 
7.4 The physiological effects of venom 
7.4.1 Unconfirmed circumstantial evidence 
7.4.2 Scientific evidence 
7.5 The use of venom today 
7.6 Venom collection 
7.7 Venom products 
7.8 Buying 
7.9 Storage 
7.10 Quality control 
7.11 Caution 
7.12 Market outlook 
7.13 Recipes

 

CHAPTER 8 – ADULT AND LARVAL HONEYBEES 

8.1 Introduction 
8.2 The chemical composition of adult and larval honeybees 
8.3 The uses of adult bees and larvae 
8.3.1 For beekeeping 
8.3.2 For pollination 
8.3.3 As food 
8.3.4 As medicine 
8.3.5 In cosmetics 
8.4 Collection 
8.4.1 Adult bees 
8.4.2 Honeybee larvae 
8.5 Buying 
8.6 Storage 
8.7 Quality control 
8.8 Caution 
8.9 Market outlook 
8.10 Recipes 
8.10.1 Preparation of mature and 
immature bees for human consumption 
8.10.2 Bakutig traditional recipe from Nepal 
(Bur2ettg 1990) 
8.10.3 Frozen larvaeg pupae or adults 
8.10.4 Rawg fried and boiled larvae 
8.10.5 Dried larvae and adults 
8.10.6 Basic general recipes 
8.10.7 Bee mango chutney 
8.10.8 Bee chapattis 
8.10.9 Pastry 
8.10.10 Popmoth 
8.10.11 Bee sweets and chocolate coated bees 
8.10.12 How to raise and harvest wax moth larvae

 

CHAPTER 9a COSMETICS 

9.1 Introduction 
9.2 Description of product types 
9.2.1 Lotions 
9.2.2 Ointments 
9.2.3 Creams 
9.2.4 Shampoos 
9.2.5 Soaps 
9.2.6 Toothpastes and mouth rinses 
9.2.7 Deodorants 
9.2.8 Facial masks 
9.2.9 Make-up 
9.2.10 Lipsticks 
9.2.11 Perfumes 
9.3 The sources of ingredients 
9.3.1 Local 
9.3.2 Imported 
9.4 Technical requirements 
9.4.1 Raw materials 
9.4.2 Equipment 
9.4.3 Emulsions 
9.4.4 Mixing 
9.4.5 Colouring 
9.5 Advantages and applications of primary bee products in cosmetics 
9.6 Buying 
9.7 Storage 
9.8 Quality control 
9.9 Packaging and presentation 
9.10 Marketing 
9.11 Caution 
9.12 Market outlook

 

CHAPTER 9b COSMETICS 

9.13 Recipes 
9.13.1 Lotions 
9.13.2 Ointments 
9.13.3 Creams 
9.13.4 Sun protection 
9.13.5 Shampoos 
9.13.6 Solid soaps 
9.13.7 Liquid soaps 
9.13.8 Toothpaste and mouth rinses 
9.13.9 Deodorants 
9.13.10 Face packs Honey face pack 
9.13.11 Make-up 
9. 13.12 Lipsticks and glosses 
9.13.13 Depilatory waxes 
9.13 14 Shaving preparations

 

ANNEXES

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

LIST OF ADDRESSES

 

WEIGHT AND VOLUME CONVERSIONS

 

CODEX ALIMENTARIUS

 

CODEX STANDARD FOR HONEY

 

 

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